Accounting is the art of recording transactions in the best manner possible, so as to enable the reader to arrive at judgments/come to conclusions, and in this regard it is utmost necessary that there are set guidelines. These guidelines are generally called accounting policies. The intricacies of accounting policies permitted Companies to alter their accounting principles for their benefit. This made it impossible to make comparisons. In order to avoid the above and to have a harmonized accounting principle, Standards needed to be set by recognized accounting bodies. This paved the way for Accounting Standards to come into existence.
Accounting Standards in India are issued By the Institute of Chartered Accountanst of India (ICAI).
Objective of Accounting Standards is to standarize the diverse accounting policies and practices with a view to eliminate to the extent possible the non-comparability of financial statements and the reliability to the financial statements.
The institute of Chatered Accountants of India, recognizing the need to harmonize the diversre accounting policies and practices, constituted at Accounting Standard Board (ASB) on 21st April, 1977.
Sub Section(3A) to section 211 of Companies Act, 1956 requires that every Profit/Loss Account and Balance Sheet shall comply with the Accounting Standards. 'Accounting Standards' means the standard of accounting recomended by the ICAI and prescribed by the Central Government in consultation with the National Advisory Committee on Accounting Standards(NACAs) constituted under section 210(1) of companies Act, 1956.
Cash Flow Statements: Cash flow statement is additional information to user of financial statement. This statement exhibits the flow of incoming and outgoing cash. This statement assesses the ability of the enterprise to generate cash and to utilize the cash. This statement is one of the tools for assessing the liquidity and solvency of the enterprise.
Contigencies and Events occuring after the balance sheet date: In preparing financial statement of a particular enterprise, accounting is done by following accrual basis of accounting and prudent accounting policies to calculate the profit or loss for the year and to recognize assets and liabilities in balance sheet. While following the prudent accounting policies, the provision is made for all known liabilities and losses even for those liabilities / events, which are probable. Professional judgement is required to classify the likehood of the future events occuring and, therefore, the question of contingencies and their accounting arises.
Net Profit or Loss for the Period, Prior Period Items and change in Accounting Policies : The objective of this accounting standard is to prescribe the criteria for certain items in the profit and loss account so that comparability of the financial statement can be enhanced. Profit and loss account being a period statement covers the items of the income and expenditure of the particular period. This accounting standard also deals with change in accounting policy, accounting estimates and extraordinary items.
Construction Contracts : Accounting for long term construction contracts involves question as to when revenue should be recognized and how to measure the revenue in the books of contractor. As the period of construction contract is long, work of construction starts in one year and is completed in another year or after 4-5 years or so. Therefore question arises how the profit or loss of construction contract by contractor should be determined. There may be following two ways to determine profit or loss: On year-to-year basis based on percentage of completion or On completion of the contract.
Revenue Recognition : The standard explains as to when the revenue should be recognized in profit and loss account and also states the circumstances in which revenue recognition can be postponed. Revenue means gross inflow of cash, receivable or other consideration arising in the course of ordinary activities of an enterprise such as:- The sale of goods, Rendering of Services, and Use of enterprises resources by other yeilding interest, dividend and royalties. In other words, revenue is a charge made to customers / clients for goods supplied and services rendered.
The Effects of changes in Foreign Exchange Rates : Effect of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rate shall be applicable in Respect of Accounting Period commencing on or after 01-04-2004 and is mandatory in nature. This accounting Standard applicable to accounting for transaction in Foreign currencies in translating in the Financial Statement Of foreign operation Integral as well as non- integral and also accounting for For forward exchange.Effect of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rate, an enterprises should disclose following aspects:
Accounting for Government Grants : Governement Grants are assistance by the Govt. in the form of cash or kind to an enterprise in return for past or future compliance with certain conditions. Government assistance, which cannot be valued reasonably, is excluded from Govt. grants,. Those transactions with Governement, which cannot be distinguished from the normal trading transactions of the enterprise, are not considered as Government grants.
Accounting for Amalgamation : This accounting standard deals with accounting to be made in books of Transferee company in case of amalgamtion. This accounting standard is not applicable to cases of acquisition of shares when one company acquires / purcahses the share of another company and the acquired company is not dissolved and its seperate entity continues to exist. The standard is applicable when acquired company is dissolved and seperate entity ceased exist and purchasing company continues with the business of acquired company
Borrowing Costs : Enterprises are borrowing the funds to acquire, build and install the fixed assets and other assets, these assets take time to make them useable or saleable, therefore the enterprises incur the interest (cost on borrowing) to acquire and build these assets. The objective of the Accounting Standard is to prescribe the treatment of borrowing cost (interest + other cost) in accounting, whether the cost of borrowing should be included in the cost of assets or not.
Segment Reporting : An enterprise needs in multiple products/services and operates in different geographical areas. Multiple products / services and their operations in different geographical areas are exposed to different risks and returns. Information about multiple products / services and their operation in different geographical areas are called segment information. Such information is used to assess the risk and return of multiple products/services and their operation in different geographical areas. Disclosure of such information is called segment reporting.
Related Paty Disclosure : Sometimes business transactions between related parties lose the feature and character of the arms length transactions. Related party relationship affects the volume and decision of business of one enterprise for the benefit of the other enterprise. Hence disclosure of related party transaction is essential for proper understanding of financial performance and financial position of enterprise.
Accounting for leases : Lease is an arrangement by which the lesser gives the right to use an asset for given period of time to the lessee on rent. It involves two parties, a lessor and a lessee and an asset which is to be leased. The lessor who owns the asset agrees to allow the lessee to use it for a specified period of time in return of periodic rent payments.
Earning Per Share :Earning per share (EPS)is a financial ratio that gives the information regarding earning available to each equiy share. It is very important financial ratio for assessing the state of market price of share. This accounting standard gives computational methodology for the determination and presentation of earning per share, which will improve the comparison of EPS. The statement is applicable to the enterprise whose equity shares or potential equity shares are listed in stock exchange.
Consolidated Financial Statements : The objective of this statement is to present financial statements of a parent and its subsidiary (ies) as a single economic entity. In other words the holding company and its subsidiary (ies) are treated as one entity for the preparation of these consolidated financial statements. Consolidated profit/loss account and consolidated balance sheet are prepared for disclosing the total profit/loss of the group and total assets and liabilities of the group. As per this accounting standard, the conslidated balance sheet if prepared should be prepared in the manner prescribed by this statement.
Accounting for Taxes on Income : This accounting standard prescribes the accounting treatment for taxes on income. Traditionally, amount of tax payable is determined on the profit/loss computed as per income tax laws. According to this accounting standard, tax on income is determined on the principle of accrual concept. According to this concept, tax should be accounted in the period in which corresponding revenue and expenses are accounted. In simple words tax shall be accounted on accrual basis; not on liability to pay basis.
Accounting for Investments in Associates in consolidated financial statements : The accounting standard was formulated with the objective to set out the principles and procedures for recognizing the investment in associates in the cosolidated financial statements of the investor, so that the effect of investment in associates on the financial position of the group is indicated.
Discontinuing Operations : The objective of this standard is to establish principles for reporting information about discontinuing operations. This standard covers "discontinuing operations" rather than "discontinued operation". The focus of the disclosure of the Information is about the operations which the enterprise plans to discontinue rather than dsclosing on the operations which are already discontinued. However, the disclosure about discontinued operation is also covered by this standard.
Financial Reporting of Interest in joint ventures : Joint Venture is defined as a contractual arrangement whereby two or more parties carry on an economic activity under 'joint control'. Control is the power to govern the financial and operating policies of an economic activity so as to obtain benefit from it. 'Joint control' is the contractually agreed sharing of control over economic activity.
Impairment of Assets : The dictionary meanong of 'impairment of asset' is weakening in value of asset. In other words when the value of asset decreases, it may be called impairment of an asset. As per AS-28 asset is said to be impaired when carrying amount of asset is more than its recoverable amount.
Provisions, Contingent Liabilities And Contingent Assets : Objective of this standard is to prescribe the accounting for Provisions, Contingent Liabilitites, Contingent Assets, Provision for restructuring cost.
Provision: It is a liability, which can be measured only by using a substantial degree of estimation.
Liability: A liability is present obligation of the enterprise arising from past events the settlement of which is expected to result in an outflow from the enterprise of resources embodying economic benefits.
Financial Instrument: Recognition and Measurement, issued by The Council of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, comes into effect in respect of Accounting periods commencing on or after 1-4-2009 and will be recommendatory in nature for An initial period of two years. This Accounting Standard will become mandatory in respect of Accounting periods commencing on or after 1-4-2011 for all commercial, industrial and business Entities except to a Small and Medium-sized Entity. The objective of this Standard is to establish principles for recognizing and measuring Financial assets, financial liabilities and some contracts to buy or sell non-financial items. Requirements for presenting information about financial instruments are in Accounting Standard.
Financial Instrument: presentation : The objective of this Standard is to establish principles for presenting financial instruments as liabilities or equity and for offsetting financial assets and financial liabilities. It applies to the classification of financial instruments, from the perspective of the issuer, into financial assets, financial liabilities and equity instruments; the classification of related interest, dividends, losses and gains; and the circumstances in which financial assets and financial liabilities should be offset. The principles in this Standard complement the principles for recognising and measuring financial assets and financial liabilities in Accounting Standard Financial Instruments:
|Financial Instruments, Disclosures and Limited revision to accounting standards: The objective of this Standard is to require entities to provide disclosures in their financial statements that enable users to evaluate:|
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